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Psychometric analysis across four South American countries

Theories and Empirical Research on Forgiveness in South America and Latin Europe: Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Spain, and Portugal

Júlio Rique, Eloá Losano de Abreu, John Klatt

Handbook of Forgiveness, 2019

Research details

Open Access: No


Research from South Latin America and Latin Europe supports theoretical claims for interpersonal forgiveness in close and valuable relationships, with researchers adapting versions of traditional measures: the Enright Forgiveness Inventory (EFI) and the Transgression Related Interpersonal Motivations Inventory (TRIM-12 and TRIM-18). The quality of psychometric analysis applied to Spanish and Portuguese versions of these measures have improved reliability, providing strong empirical evidences for cross-cultural comparisons. This chapter reports on significant scholarship on forgiveness from four South American countries of Latin background: Argentina, Brazil, Chile, and Colombia. Spain and Portugal are also included in the review as European countries with Latin cultures and languages disseminated to nations in South and Central America during colonization. Research on forgiveness in these countries grew out of the revival of interest in the theme by North American psychology during the 1990s. This coincides with periods of social conflicts for the return of democracies in the South Latin American nations. Argentina, Brazil, Chile, and Colombia are, each in their own way, consolidating socioeconomic development and social harmony, after facing a past of political repression and social conflicts. Portugal and Spain, former colonizers of nations in South America, have internal social conflicts of different sorts.