facebookMeasures of Forgiveness: Self-repor... by Everett L. Worthington, Jr.,Caroline R. Lavelock,Charlotte V. O. Witvliet,Mark S. Rye,Jo-Ann Tsang,Loren L. Toussaint | Templeton

Analysis of fourteen measures

Measures of Forgiveness: Self-report, Physiological, Chemical, and Behavioral Indicators

Everett L. Worthington, Jr., Caroline R. Lavelock, Charlotte V. O. Witvliet, Mark S. Rye, Jo-Ann Tsang, Loren L. Toussaint

Measures of Personality and Social Psychological Constructs, 2015

Research details

Type of paper: Integrative/Synthetic Review

Open Access: No


We review 14 measures of forgiveness, including measures of state forgiveness, forgivingness as a disposition or trait, self-reported state self-forgiveness, and trait self-forgivingness. The state forgiveness measures include self-report measures, chemical measures of state unforgiveness and forgiveness, measures of peripheral physiology (i.e., blood pressure, heart rate, skin conductance, and electrical activity of facial muscles) to supplement self-reports – unforgiveness, measures of brain activity associated with forgiveness, and behavioral indices of forgiveness. We also review a ten-item scale and a five-scenario scale of dispositional forgivingness. Self-forgiveness may also be assessed at state (one measure) and trait levels (one measure). These measures of forgiveness and their various targets (self or other) and different levels (state or trait) are generally strong – with considerable evidence supporting estimated reliabilities and construct validities.